Nepalese villagers in the film Trekking Tradition is an example of a type of culture that had adapted to the “invasion” of the western capitalism.
The Balinese in “The Goddess and the Computer” are a peasant society co-existing with a modern society and slowly making efforts to progress ahead. Globalization is at work as Bali, one out of many other non-modern type societies, work to integrate to modern society.
The Holy Ghost community does not possess all of the characteristics of an Industrial/pre-modern society. God is the authority in their lives, they do not question the logic of the unsafe ritual, and they are in a small and rural setting.
Malls can create new values and traditions, forming a consumerist culture. Malls are able to influence people to “jump the bandwagon.” Marketing informs the consumer what material objects or services that they are lacking. A woman in the film mentioned that she dresses nicely at the mall trying to be noticed. Shopping and buying things for her pleasure did not seem to be selfish in her opinion; in pampering herself, she is “paying respect to God.”
The hidden social and environmental goals that belong to the authorship of Roland Emmerich and the obvious marketing goals that belong to Columbia Pictures help explain why 2012 was constructed with specific elements.